Category Archives: Research

Site Visit Feb 10 NFT Overlay Tests

These tests were based around the creation of an overlay which specifies to the user what to focus the camera on to generate the NFT content. The overlay disappears once the NFT has been tracked. IMG_0509

Once the tracking works a small square was programmed to appear this will be replaced with interactive content now that we know it works. This stingray NFT were successful except for the sizing of the NFT on the UI. This will be amended. IMG_0510

The Text NFT was unsuccessful however although the overlays sizing was better than the stingray.

Below is the closest we could get to matching the Text NFT to the marker.



Katherine Mansfield House Visit

6th Jan

Jeff and I went for a trip over to Katherine Mansfield’s House in Thorndon.

Below is an image gallery of the trip.

We were also given a link to a short documentary based on Mansfield which i plan to watch tonight.

A Portrait of Katherine Mansfield:

Also as I walked through town I came across a sculpture of  Katherine Mansfield which we could drawn inspiration.


Precedent – Uber (map and way-finding)


The users phone uses location services to locate the user on a map accurately. There is also a radar that emanates from the user.


Tap Navigation

The UBER map  navigation iuses basic smart phone tap interactions they are as follows:

Directional navigation– press and slide in the direction

Scaling– pinch to zoom in/out

Double Tap- to zoom in


Home button

No matter where the user navigates to on the map there is a small button on the bottom right of the UI that is a shortcut back to the users position on the map.

There is no rotation control and the map is always in a North facing direction (north is at the top of the screen)


Colour Scheme key

Roads- White

Parks- Green

Water- Blue

Ground- Grey



Uber cars are identified as car icons. These icons are postioned in the direction that the car is traveling. Other icons are similar to those of google maps and donote locations of significacnce or other places of interest such as bus stops.



Text is  white outlined and scales to view. The text also starts with capitals and then uses lowercase letters.



Slides in from the side of the app and is accessed through a button on the map.


NFT/APP Field Test 2

I was out for a walk on Friday 16th and I decided to test the application at the Katherine Mansfield Sculpture. The Location services worked well and mapped my location well (screenshot below).IMG_0265

The initialisation of an NFT on the sculpture itself worked but took too long and i needed to adjust my viewing angle to make it work. But once it did work the tracking was great and worked seamlessly.

For our next test we should work on the initialisation of the AR.

User Personas – Age Group Differences

Age Group Differences

The following table summarises the main similarities and differences in web design approaches for young children, teenagers, college students, and adults. (The findings about children are from our studies with 3–12-year-old users; the findings about college students are from our study with 18–24-year-old users.)

Hunting for things to click Tabbed browsing Scrolling Search Patience Animation
sound effects
yes no no no maybe yes
maybe maybe maybe no no maybe
College students
no yes yes yes no no
no maybe yes yes yes no
yes Enjoyable, interesting, and appealing, or users can easily adjust to it.
maybe Users might appreciate it to some extent, but overuse can be problematic.
no Users dislike it, don’t do it, or find it difficult to operate.

Clearly, there are many differences between age groups. The highest usability level for teens comes from designs that are targeted specifically at their needs and behaviours, which differ from those of adults and young children. As the table shows, this is true both for interaction design and for more obvious factors, such as topics and content style.



User Personas – Tennagers

The following is a summary of a report by Hoa Loranger and Jakob Nielsen who conducted a report on Young Young Adults/Millennials as Web Users (Ages 18–25)


Summary: Teens are (over)confident in their web abilities, but they perform worse than adults. Lower reading levels, impatience, and undeveloped research skills reduce teens’ task success and require simple, relatable sites.


Teens are wired. Technology is so integrated with teenagers’ lives that creating useful and usable websites for them is more critical than ever. To succeed in a world where the next best thing is a click away and text message interruptions are the rule, not the exception, website creators must clearly understand what teens want and how to keep them on a site.

To understand the expectations of a generation that grew up with technology and the Internet, we conducted empirical usability studies with real teens to identify specific guidelines for how websites can be improved to match teenagers’ abilities and preferences.

Our research refutes many stereotypes, including that teens:

  • just want to be entertained online with graphics and multimedia,
  • are supremely tech savvy,
  • use smartphones for everything, and
  • want everything to be social.

Teens are not technowizards who surf the web with abandon. And they don’t like sites laden with glitzy, blinking graphics. Teens are often stereotyped as only wanting things that are bold and different. They’re also often viewed as being fearless about technology and constantly connected to some form of media. Although this might be partially true, it’s an oversimplification and letting this steer your design can lead to disastrous outcomes.

Teenagers use the Internet from many devices in various environments. For our research, we focused on web usability, mainly from desktop and laptop computers. We also looked at mobile website usability and how teenagers use mobile devices. Although teens spend endless time texting, Facebooking, etc., we didn’t focus on this because our goal was to derive design guidelines for mainstream websites, not to help build the next Facebook.

The Research

We derived 111 usability guidelines for engaging teens and keeping them on your site. These recommendations are based on observational studies using multiple methodologies. A total of 84 users between the ages of 13 and 17 participated in two rounds of research: 38 teens in the original study (8 years ago), and 46 teens in our new study. We triangulated findings across three methods:

  • Usability testing. We met with test participants one at a time and gave them tasks to perform, asking them to vocalize their thoughts as they attempted tasks. To keep the scenarios as authentic as possible, we matched the tasks with each teen’s actual interests and simulated real-world situations.
  • Field studies. We observed teenagers in their homes and at school. During these site visits, we didn’t give users predefined tasks to perform, but simply watched as they used the web the way they normally would in these settings.
  • Interviews and focus groups. To gain further insight into their experiences and attitudes, we asked participants to offer stories and examples detailing how and when they use the web, and which sites they considered interesting and useful. We also solicited advice from teens on how to make websites appealing. Interviews were held before and after the other usability sessions, as well as during a focus group.

We conducted these studies in the U.S. and Australia, in cities and towns ranging from affluent suburbs to disadvantaged urban areas. We tested a roughly equivalent number of boys and girls on a total of 152 websites that covered a broad range of genres, including:

  • School resources (California State University, BBC Schools, SparkNotes)
  • Tourism/Arts & Entertainment (, Kidspace Children’s Museum, Lonely Planet)
  • Health (Australian Drug Foundation, KidsHealth, National Institute on Drug Abuse)
  • Informational/Reference ( Nature , Food Network, Scientific American)
  • News (CNN,, BBC Teens,
  • Entertainment and Games (MTV,, Cool Math Games, Disney)
  • E-commerce (American Eagle Outfitters, Apple, Volcom)
  • Corporate sites (Pepsi-Cola, The Principal Financial Group, Procter & Gamble, Samsung, Morton Salt)
  • Government (Australian Government main portal, California’s Department of Motor Vehicles, the U.S. White House, NASA)
  • Non-profits (Alzheimer’s Association, The Insite, World Food Programme, National Wildlife Federation)

As these examples show, we tested both specialized sites that explicitly target teenagers and mainstream sites that include teens as part of a broader target audience.

Teen Motivations for Using Websites

Teenagers access the web for myriad activities, including entertainment. Generally, they have a specific goal, even if that goal is just to keep themselves occupied for 10 minutes.

Although their specific tasks might differ from adults, teens are similar to adults in major ways: both groups expect websites to be easy to use and to let them accomplish their tasks. Like adults, teens are goal-oriented and don’t surf the web aimlessly; website usability is thus as important for them as for any other user group.

Teens in our studies reported using the web for:

  • School assignments
  • Hobbies or other special interests (including learning new skills or finding fun activities)
  • Entertainment (including music and games)
  • News (including sports, current events, and entertainment)
  • Learning about new topics
  • Talking to friends
  • Shopping

Even when teens don’t make actual purchases on websites, they do visit them to research products and build wish lists for the credit-card-carrying adults in their lives.

Good and Bad News

The good news: Teens are becoming more successful at navigating websites and finding what they need. The success rate for teens has improved 16% during the 8 years between the old and new studies, for an improvement rate of 2 percentage points per year. This is slightly better than the improvement rate of 1.7% per year for adults using websites over the past decade.

Note: The success rate indicates the portion of tasks users were able to complete. Anything less than 100 percent represents a design failure or loss of business for a site.

Teens success rate in usability studies 8 years ago vs now
Good news: Success increased by 16 percent in 8 years.

Are teens getting better or are websites getting better? Probably a bit of both. We observed many of the same bad user habits among teens in our new study as we saw 8 years ago. Thus, the improved performance obviously stems in part from improvements in website design. That said, even though teens in our original study were heavy web users, teenagers today have even greater access to the internet and spend more time using it — and thus have more chances to hone their web surfing skills.

The bad news: Teens are not as invincible as some people think. Although teens might feel confident online, they do make mistakes and often give up quickly. Fast-moving teens are also less cautious than adults and make snap judgments; these lead to lower success. Indeed, we measured a success rate of only 71% for teenage users compared to 83% for adults.

Teens perform worse than adults for three reasons:

  • Insufficient reading skills
  • Less sophisticated research strategies
  • Dramatically lower levels of patience

To improve your site’s usability among teens, you must consider all three factors.

Across different types of websites, teens had the most success on e-commerce websites, which often adhered to design standards and required little reading. Teens encountered the greatest challenges on large sites with dense content and poor navigation schemes. Government, non-profit, and school sites were the biggest culprits of poor usability.

Despite usability improvements, we observed users struggling with the same issues as in previous years — as well as new issues created by emerging features and design approaches. Thus, both traditional and new guidelines must be considered as technology and people continually evolve; our new report contains 110 guidelines total, compared with 61 in the first edition.

Many of the guidelines also apply to general audiences. For teens, however, these guidelines are even more important because the usability issues present bigger hurdles.

Write Well

Write for impatient users. Nothing deters younger audiences more than a cluttered screen full of text. Teens can quickly become bored, distracted, and frustrated.
Teenagers don’t like to read a lot on the web. They get enough of that at school. Also, the reading skills of many teenagers are not ideal, especially among younger teens. Sites that were easy to scan or that illustrated concepts visually were strongly preferred to sites with dense text.

Applying proper web writing and formatting techniques is crucial in communicating with teens. Display content in small, meaningful chunks with plenty of white space. Small chunks help students retain information and pick up where they left off after the inevitable interruptions of text messages and phone calls.

Help teens learn and stay focused by choosing your words wisely. Use words that teens understand. Write in short sentences and paragraphs. Teens generally have poorer reading and comprehension skills than adults. If your site targets a broad audience, aim to write at a 6th-grade reading level (or lower). Writing at this level will help audiences of all ages — young and old — quickly understand your content.

One surprising finding in this study: teenagers dislike tiny font sizes as much as adults do. We’ve often warned websites about using small text because of the negative implications for senior citizens (and even people in their late 40s, whose eyesight has begun to decline). We’ve always assumed that tiny text predominated because most Web designers are young and still have perfect vision, so we were surprised that small type often caused problems or provoked negative comments from our study’s teen users. Even though they’re sufficiently sharp-eyed, most teens move too quickly and are too easily distracted to attend to small text.

Avoid Boring Content — and Entertainment Overload

Teens complained about sites they found boring. Dull content is the kiss of death if your goal is to keep teens on your site. However, not everything needs to be interactive and fancy. Although teens have a strong appreciation for aesthetics, they detest sites that appear cluttered and contain pointless multimedia.

Beware of overusing interactive features just because you’re designing for younger audiences. Multimedia can engage or enrage teens, depending on its usefulness. The best online experiences for teens are those that teach them something new or keep them focused on a goal.

What’s good? The following interactive features all worked well because they let teens do things rather than simply sit and read:

  • Online quizzes
  • Forms for providing feedback or asking questions
  • Online voting
  • Games
  • Features for sharing pictures or stories
  • Message boards
  • Forums for offering and receiving advice
  • Features for creating a website or otherwise adding content

These interactive features let teenagers make their mark on the Internet and express themselves in various ways — some small, some big.

The site type influences user expectations. For example, teens expect e-commerce and brand sites to look professional and informational sites to look simple and polished. For the latter sites, presenting interesting content in a clear manner is much more attractive than experimenting with new sophisticated features. Teens can learn and feel engaged without the nonessential enhancements.

Make It Snappy

A slow-loading website is a deal-breaker. Whatever you do, make sure your site loads quickly. Slow, sluggish sites are frustrating to anybody, but they’re especially offensive to young audiences who expect instant gratification.

Think twice before you develop that super-cool widget. If it’s slow or buggy, forget it. Teens won’t have the patience for it. Because teens often work on older, second-hand computers — and sometimes have slow Internet connections — fancy features might not work well. Teenagers like to do stuff on the Web. They dislike sites that are slow or that look fancy but behave clumsily.

Don’t Talk Down to Teens

Avoid anything that sounds condescending or babyish. The proper tone can make or break your site. Teens relate to content created by peers, so supplement your content with real stories, images, and examples from other teens.

Some websites in our study tried to serve both children and teens in a single area, usually titled something like Kids. This is a grave mistake; the word “kid” is a teen repellent. Teenagers are fiercely proud of their newly won status, and they don’t want overly childish content — one more reason to ease up on the heavy animations and garish color schemes that work for younger audiences. We recommend having separate sections for young children and teens, labeled Kids and Teens, respectively.

Let Teens Control the Social Aspects

Facilitate sharing but don’t force it. Teens rely on technology for social communication, but they don’t want to be social all the time. They do want to control what they share and how they share it. Sites that force teens to register and then automatically make the profile public on the site violate trust. Parents and teachers teach teens to protect their privacy at a young age, and one of the things teens learn is to avoid nosey sites.

When offering sharing options, make sure to include email. Unlike college students, teens often prefer using email to share content as they’re more protective of their social accounts and cautious about who sees their activities.

Design for Smaller Screens and Poor Ergonomics

Many students access the web while sitting in awkward positions using portable devices with small screens, such as laptops, tablets, and mobile devices. The adoption of portable devices requires that you design a website in a way that doesn’t compromise usability. Thus, even though screens are getting bigger for business users, teens rarely get those top-end desktop computers.

Teens often work on laptops with track pads, making interactions that require precision — such as drop-down menus, drag-n-drop, and small buttons — difficult. Design elements such as rollover effects and small click zones are also problematic, if they’re usable at all. Small text sizes and dense text make reading difficult. Combine these elements with poor ergonomics and you have a prescription for fatigue and errors.

Media portrays teens as competent computer jockeys. In reality, teen overconfidence combined with developing cognitive abilities means they often give up quickly and blame the website’s design. They don’t blame themselves, they blame you.

More information and complete usability guidelines for designing websites for teens in our full research report.

Users Personas – Young Adults

The following is a summary of a report by Kate Meyer who conducted a report on Young Young Adults/Millennials as Web Users (Ages 18–25)


Summary: User research across 7 countries found that members of the — often misunderstood — Millennial generation exhibit unique behaviors and approaches to digital interfaces. They are confident and error prone, and they have high expectations of websites.

Today’s young adults (aged 18 to 25) are a subgroup of the Millennial generation (which includes people born from 1980 to 2000). Most of them are digital natives, meaning they grew up with access to digital communications technology. They are a critically important user group: many of them are studying for degrees, or beginning careers. Some of them are starting families and buying homes. They’re starting to earn more money, and they’re comfortable with spending it online.

Online design and marketing blogs are rife with speculation and stereotypes about young adults, but few of these are based on fact. In an effort to provide a research-based alternative, we conducted a comprehensive study involving 7 countries, 91 young adults, and 4 different user-research methodologies. This study built upon and expanded our earlier research with college students.

Our findings shed light on:

  • The unique ways that young adults use browser tabs
  • How young adults multitask online
  • The differences between young adults and teenagers
  • The differences between young adults and older adults (and why popular myths about Millennials are wrong)
  • How young adults use social media
  • A lack of international differences among young adults
  • Young adults’ expectations for all aspects of websites, including content, interaction design, and visual design

The Research

All of the participants in our study were aged 18–25. We intentionally recruited a mix of educational and occupational backgrounds. Each of the participants fell into one of 4 categories:

  • Young professional (e.g., sales coordinator or business-solutions consultant)
  • Graduate student (e.g., pursuing a Master’s in Exercise Physiology or Doctor of Medicine)
  • Undergraduate student (e.g., pursuing a Bachelor of Science in Psychology)
  • Young adult without an undergraduate degree (e.g., someone who began an undergraduate program but withdrew without completing it, or someone who never attended a postsecondary program)

Our earlier editions of the report included only current graduate and undergraduate students. Expanding to include recent graduates and those young adults without postsecondary degrees enabled us to study a richer set of participants, with a wider variety of interests and backgrounds. We found no substantial differences between the educational/occupational categories.

We conducted multiple rounds of usability testing with 91 participants. Of these test sessions, 79 were conducted in person, and 12 were conducted remotely. These tests involved a combination of open-ended and site-specific tasks, using 372 different sites.

The usability testing took place in 7 different countries:

  • Australia
  • Canada
  • Germany
  • The Netherlands
  • Singapore
  • United Kingdom
  • USA

We supplemented our usability testing with:

  • Naturalistic recordings: Participants recorded their online activities for two days on their own laptop at home, and then sent us the files to review.
  • A diary study: Participants documented 4 online activities per day for 4 days using a mobile app for diary studies. Activities varied in granularity — from quickly looking up a question on Google, to spending hours streaming video.
  • A survey: We surveyed 229 young adults and 228 older adults (35 years or older) to find out their opinions on the attractiveness of flat design.

Multitasking and Browser Tabs

Young adults are often stereotyped as exceptional multitaskers. Our findings indicate that they commonly engage in several activities in parallel, but tend to perform them linearly, rather than simultaneously. They may alternate quickly and lose context, but they don’t attempt activities all at once. Like other user groups, they suffer from reduced efficiency when they engage in this context-switching behavior.

Young adults are extremely comfortable flipping through browser tabs. Sometimes they use browser tabs to support multiple, unrelated tasks (a behavior referred to as parallel browsing).

We discovered that they also engage in page parking — an information-seeking strategy that utilizes multiple browser tabs to support a single task. Young adults tend to use browser tabs in this way much more intensely and frequently than older adults, but some individuals are more inclined to use the tactic than others.

How Young Adults Differ from Teenagers

It’s tempting to assume that the guidelines provided in our report on how to design for teenagers would apply just as well to designing for young adults — particularly since the youngest young adults (aged 18) are technically teenagers.

However, we found that young adults exhibit different behaviors as compared to the teens we’ve studied.

  • While teens enjoy sites that provide interactive features like games and quizzes, young adults like interactivity only when it serves a purpose and supports their current task.
  • Teenagers tend to be poor readers, and they prefer nontext alternatives like multimedia content. Some young adults, particularly college students, are strong readers, but they still don’t enjoy reading large amounts of text online. They prefer content that is easy to scan.
  • A site targeted to teenagers will not hit the right tone for young adults. Young adults are sensitive to tone. They will feel insulted if they suspect the site is talking down to them, and will notice if the site is trying too hard to appear cool.
  • Young adults are much more skeptical of the information presented on websites. They demand more evidence to support claims than teenagers do.

How Young Adults Differ from Older Adults

Due to their upbringing with access to digital communications technology, Millennials are often the subject of widespread misconceptions. Some have even suggested that digital natives have brains that are literally hardwired differently from older generations. To some extent, this can be attributed to the age–old phenomenon of stereotyping and moral panic about the failings of “kids today.”

In many ways, young adults are just like other adult user groups — they want easy interactions, straightforward content, and an enjoyable experience. However, there is some truth to the idea that Millennials have slightly different approaches to digital interfaces.

  • Compared to older users, young adults tend to be extremely confident in their own ability to navigate digital interfaces, even when encountering radically new design patterns.
  • As a consequence of their confidence, young adults are error prone when using interfaces. They often click first, and ask questions later.
  • Additionally, young adults rarely blame themselves when things go wrong — unlike older users. They typically see usability issues as the fault of the site, and will sometimes criticize the organization that the site represents.
  • Many of these young adults grew up alongside Google. They’re quick to use Google as a reference point for ease of use and simplicity.
  • Young adults may have very different opinions about the visual appeal of websites than older adults do (see our survey on flat design, which used the Microsoft desirability toolkit).

These differences underscore the importance of testing your interface with representative users.

Time will tell whether the behaviors of this group of young adults will change as they grow older. We may see that aging reduces their impulsiveness and self-confidence in their approach to digital interfaces. However, the unique childhood experiences of this generation of digital natives will likely continue to influence their preferences and expectations.


No Significant International Differences

We tested with English-speaking young adult participants in 7 countries, and many of those participants were born and raised in yet other countries. Still, we found no major differences in the behavioral patterns of the young adults. The guidelines presented in this report hold true globally. (We rarely find behavior differences across countries in user testing.)

There are, of course, regional differences in language (for example, in the UK the word “uni” is sometimes used for “university”).

Additionally, young adults whose native language is not English often spend more effort to interpret complex words and sentences and have difficulty understanding puns and colloquialisms. Content that uses simple language and avoids unnecessary jargon helps all visitors, especially readers who speak English as a second language.

Full Report

For the complete discussion of our findings, including 81 design guidelines to satisfy young adults’ expectations of websites, download our full report on how to design for young adults.

Kate Meyer talk about user experience design for Millennials:

Precedent – Pokemon Go

What is Pokémon GO?

Travel between the real world and the virtual world of Pokémon with Pokémon GO for iPhone and Android devices! With Pokémon GO, you’ll discover Pokémon in a whole new world—your own! Pokémon GO uses real location information to encourage players to search far and wide in the real world to discover Pokémon.

The Pokémon video game series has used real-world locations such as the Hokkaido and Kanto regions of Japan, New York, and Paris as inspiration for the fantasy settings in which its games take place. Now the real world is the setting!

The Pokémon video game series has always valued open and social experiences, such as connecting with other players to enjoy trading and battling Pokémon. Pokémon GO’s gameplay experience goes beyond what appears on screen, as players explore their neighbourhoods, communities, and the world they live in to discover Pokémon alongside friends and other players.

Pokémon GO is developed by Niantic, Inc. Originally founded by Google Earth co-creator John Hanke as a start-up within Google, Niantic is known for creating Ingress, the augmented reality mobile game that utilizes GPS technology to fuel a sci-fi story encompassing the entire world. Ingress currently has 12 million downloads worldwide.


How it works from our perspective?


IMG_0248Way-finding works by using the phones location services to know the user position in space. A radar is then used to activate points of interest around a user, such as Poke Stops and Pokemon encounters. The player is represented through an avatar on the map itself.

AR  View

IMG_0249In my opinion Pokemon go is not true AR.  I uses the camera view with a UI Overlay that is positioned using a phones gyro / accelerometer. This creates the illusion of a virtual object in physical reality however this can be debunked by moving the phone around in space. When this is done virtual objects retain the same distance from the phone and move position in space, where as if they were true AR they would retain a “fixed”position in space.
Another thing to understand is that not many people use this view as it complicates the Pokemon catching Pokemon. Many just use the default 3D view that keep the Pokemon in view at all times.

What we will use

This precedent will be used as a basis and inspiration for way finding and the AR instance using the phones gyro sensor.

However for our map we are leaning towards a 2D style, opposed to the 3D style of Pokemon Go. We also need to be careful not to make the visuals too much like Pokemon Go as it is a well known application, but we can use it to inform the mechanics of the way finding as these are already well known.

Precedent – Wallame

What is it

WallaMe is a free iOS and Android app that allows users to hide and share messages in the real world using augmented reality.

Users can take a picture of a surface around them and write, draw and add stickers and photos on them. Once the message (called Wall) is completed, it will be geolocalized and will remain visible through WallaMe’s AR viewer by everyone passing by. A Wall can also be made private, thus becoming visible only to specific people.

UNADJUSTEDNONRAW_thumb_ceAll the Walls created worldwide can be seen in a feed similar to those of social networks like Facebook and Instagram, and can be liked, commented on, and shared outside the app.

WallaMe is mostly used to create digital graffiti and for proximity messaging.



How it works

Wallame allows you to create your own markers based o photos and map AR instances to them.

Content can be in the form of;

  • Images
  • Doodles(drawn using the app)
  • Text

An example video is below



What will we use 

The ability to have a user created content is exciting as users could leave their own messages/ marks on the overall experience.

Other interactions such as the ability to doodle/ place content in space could be very powerful.

One limitation is that the app can only see one AR instance at a time, which is chosen by the user.